Thursday, April 7, 2016

Chapter 1: Anatomy of brain

To understand how the brain computer interaction occurs, we have to know the concepts of human brain and its functionalities.
Human brain contains billions of nerve cells arranged in a particular pattern that coordinate emotion, behaviour, thought, sensation etc. Like the national highway connects all parts of the country to the capital, here in human body a very complicated highway system of nerves connects the brain to the rest of human body.
The cerebrum is the largest part of the human brain, this what we generally visualize a human brain. The outermost layer of the cerebrum is called cerebral cortex. Sometimes it also referred as grey Matter of the brain. The wrinkles and deep folds in the brain increases the surface area of the grey matter, so more information can be processed.

The cerebrum divided into two halves by a deep fissure. The sides of the brain communicate with each other through a thick tract of nerves, called the corpus callosum, at the base of fissure.
It is believed that the one side of body is controlled by the opposite side of the brain.

The hemisphere of the brain can be further divided into 4 parts.
1                     The frontal lobes :Thinking, Planning, Organizing, Problem Solving, Short term Memory
2                     The parietal lobes: Sensor
3                     The occipital lobes: Process images from eye and link to the memory
4                     The temporal lobes: process the sensor information

The cerebellum is situated below the brain at the back, and it combine the sensor information received from eye ear and muscles to coordinate the body.
The brainstem links the brain to the spinal cord. It controls many functions that are very important to life, such as heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. This area is very important fro sleep.
The core of the brain controls emotion and memories is known as Limbic system, and these structures come in pairs as each placed in each hemisphere of te brain.
Ø  The thalamus: acts like the firewall for message passed between the spinal cord and the cerebral hemisphere
Ø  The hypothalamus: controls emotion
Ø  The hippocampus: memory manager
The nervous system is all the nerves in the body, that are connect the brain with the body through the spinal cord.
Neurons have two man types of branches coming off their bodies.
1                     Dendrite: receive the incoming signals
2                     Axon: carried in the signal from nearby neuron
Inter neuron communication is very fast.

A neuron communicates with each other cells through electrical impulses, when the nerve cell is stimulated.
Within a neuron, the impulse moves to the tip of an axon and causes release of neurotransmitter chemicals that acts as messengers.

Neurotransmitters pass through the gap between two nerve cells, called Synapse and attached to receptors on the receiving cell.
This process repeats from neuron to neuron, s the impulse travels to destination.
This web based communication that allows the human to move, think, feel and communicate.
For every job and feelings there is a different web combination.


Studied from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/brain, Wikipedia, youtube
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